24. April 2014 · Comments Off on Creating Read-Only User Accounts on Cisco ASA5500 · Categories: Cisco · Tags: , , , , , ,

All users configured on the ASA are assigned a privilege level. This privilege level is specified when configuring the username as follows:

hostname(config)# username name password password privilege priv_level

The privilege level can be any value from 0 (least permissive) to 15 (most permissive), with 2 being the default. Do note that if you want to grant the user access to privileged EXEC mode, you should use the range from 2 to 15. For the purpose of assigning read-only access to a user, we will use a privilege level of 5.

AAA refers to authentication, authorization and accounting. It allows us to authenticate who the user is, authorize what that user is allowed to do, and then keep an accounting record showing what that user has done. In order to create a read-only user account, we need to define which commands the user should be granted access to. This requires knowledge of who the user is, so we first need to ensure that user authentication is configured.

To enable AAA authentication, use the following command:

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23. November 2012 · Comments Off on Cisco ASA Port Forwarding in 8.3 from the CLI the easy way · Categories: Cisco · Tags: , , , , ,

In this example, we want to be able to access a Media Server behind the firewall.  We’ll assume you are using port 32400, the Media Server’s internal IP address is, I’ll give you the steps, then I’ll explain.

Step 1: Create a new object group for you web server.

asa5505(config)# object network MediaServer

Step 2: Add the IP of the web server to the network group.

asa5505(config-network-object)# host

Step 3: Forward the port via the NAT command.

asa5505(config-network-object)# nat (inside,outside) static interface service tcp 32400 32400

Step 4: Exit back to the root and add the access list

 asa5505(config)# access-list outside_access_in permit tcp any object MediaServer eq 32400 any

That’s it!  Now, let’s explain what’s going on here.  Cisco has started moving more and more towards use of object groups in their configs.  It makes things easier, especially when you have a situation where you have 20 web servers behind the firewall and you want to add 1 more in.  Rather than having to rewrite a whole bunch of ACL’s, you just add the IP of the new web server into the object group and everything is done for you.  So here our Media Server is  If you want to send port 80 to more than 1 IP on your internal network, just add more IP’s to that object group.

This works for ANY port forward.  If you want to RDP into a machine, simply replace port 32400 with 3389.  There is one caveat.  You can only do one port forward per object group.  So let’s say that our Media Server is also an FTP server and you want port 21 to forward as well as port 32400.  You’re going to have to create a whole new object group (object network FTPServer), put the same IP in the group (host, do the nat command again (nat (inside,outside) static interface service tcp ftp ftp), exit back to the root of config, and add the access list (access-list outside_access_in  permit tcp any object FTPServer eq ftp).

This should get you up and running in no time

17. November 2012 · Comments Off on Cisco ASA 5500 Dual ISP Connection [Failback] · Categories: Cisco · Tags: , , , , ,

Starting from version 7.2(1) and upwards, the Cisco ASA 5500 series firewall supports now the Dual-ISP capability. You can connect two interfaces of the firewall to two different ISPs and use the new “SLA Monitor” feature (SLA=Service Level Monitoring) to monitor the link to the primary ISP, and if that fails, the traffic is routed to the Backup ISP.

asa 5500 dual isp connection

Assume that the Primary ISP (ISP-1) has assigned to us the public IP address with gateway Also, the Backup ISP (ISP-2) has assigned us the public IP with gateway Normally all traffic should flow through ISP-1, but if the physical link (or route) to that ISP fails, then traffic should be redirected to the Backup ISP. We can configure an SLA monitor service which will be checking every 30 seconds (using a ping echo request) the availability of the primary Gateway IP address ( If there is no response in 20000 milliseconds (20 sec), then the default route will be redirected to the Backup ISP. The configuration is shown below:

asa5500(config)# sla monitor 100
asa5500(config-sla-monitor)# type echo protocol ipIcmpEcho interface outside
asa5500(config-sla-monitor-echo)# timeout 20000
asa5500(config-sla-monitor-echo)# frequency 30
asa5500(config)# sla monitor schedule 100 life forever start-time now
asa5500(config)# track 1 rtr 100 reachability
asa5500(config)# route outside 1 track 1
asa5500(config)# route backup-isp 254

Of course the configuration above assumes that you have already configured two interfaces connected to the ISPs, the first one with name ‘outside’ (security level 0) and the second one with name ‘backup-isp’ (security level 1).

07. August 2012 · Comments Off on Recovering Passwords for the ASA 5500 Series Adaptive Security Appliance · Categories: Cisco · Tags: , , ,

To recover passwords for the ASA, perform the following steps:

Step 1 Connect to the ASA console port according to the instructions in “Accessing the Appliance Command-Line Interface” section.

Step 2 Power off the ASA, and then power it on.

Step 3 After startup, press the Escape key when you are prompted to enter ROMMON mode.

Step 4 To update the configuration register value, enter the following command:

rommon #1> confreg 0x41

Update Config Register (0x41) in NVRAM…

Step 5 To set the ASA to ignore the startup configuration, enter the following command:

rommon #1> confreg

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18. July 2012 · Comments Off on Basic configuration tutorial for the Cisco ASA · Categories: Cisco · Tags: , ,
This article gets back to the basics regarding Cisco ASA firewalls. I’m offering you here a basic configuration tutorial for the Cisco ASA security appliance. Assume that we are assigned a static public IP address from our ISP. Also, the internal LAN network belongs to subnet Interface Ethernet0/0 will be connected to the outside (towards the ISP), and Ethernet0/1 will be connected to the Inside LAN switch.

The firewall will be configured to supply IP addresses dynamically (using DHCP) to the internal hosts. All outbound communication (from inside to outside) will be translated using Port Address Translation (PAT) on the outside public interface.
Step1: Configure a privileged level password (enable password)
By default there is no password for accessing the ASA firewall, so the first step before doing anything else is to configure a privileged level password, which will be needed to allow subsequent access to the appliance.Configure this under Configuration Mode:
ASA5510(config)# enable password mysecretpassword
Step2: Configure the public outside interface
ASA5510(config)# interface Ethernet0/0
ASA5510(config-if)# nameif outside
ASA5510(config-if)# security-level 0
ASA5510(config-if)# ip address
ASA5510(config-if)# no shut
Step3: Configure the trusted internal interface
ASA5510(config)# interface Ethernet0/1
ASA5510(config-if)# nameif inside
ASA5510(config-if)# security-level 100
ASA5510(config-if)# ip address
ASA5510(config-if)# no shut
Step 4: Configure PAT on the outside interface
ASA5510(config)# global (outside) 1 interface
ASA5510(config)# nat (inside) 1
UPDATE for ASA Version 8.3
From March 2010, Cisco announced the new Cisco ASA software version 8.3. This version introduced several important configuration changes, especially on the NAT/PAT mechanism. The “global” command is no longer supported. NAT (static and dynamic) and PAT are configured under network objects. The PAT configuration below is for ASA 8.3 and later:
object network obj_any
nat (inside,outside) dynamic interface
Step 5: Configure Default Route towards the ISP (assume default gateway is
ASA5510(config)# route outside 1
Step 6: Configure the firewall to assign internal IP and DNS address to hosts using DHCP
ASA5510(config)# dhcpd dns
ASA5510(config)# dhcpd address inside
ASA5510(config)# dhcpd enable inside